Shamsin

Shamsin (Arabic: شمسين‎‎ Shamsîn also spelled Shemsin, Shamsinn or Shimsan) is a village in central Syria, administratively part of the Homs Governorate, located south of Homs. Nearby localities include al-Qusayr to the west, Damina al-Sharqiya to the northwest, Shinshar to the north, Dardaghan to the southeast and Hisyah to the south. According to the Syrian Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Shamsin had a population of 811 in the 2004 census. Its inhabitants are predominantly Sunni Muslims.

In 1226, during Ayyubid rule, Syrian geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi visited Shamsin, noting it was „a place between Hims (Homs) and Kara.“ Under the Ayyubids and later the Mamluks who gained power in 1250, Shamsin was part of Mamlakat Hims („Kingdom of Homs“), the smallest district in both sultanates.

In the mid-19th-century, Shamsin was described as „a small place“ by German traveler Albert Socin. During this period, the village was walled and referred to as the site of an old khan (caravanserai). It was populated by a few families, while the surrounding areas were dominated by the nomadic `Anizzah tribe.

Encyclopedia of Christianity

The Encyclopedia of Christianity is a one-volume encyclopedia published by Oxford University Press and edited by John Bowden of Nottingham University and King’s College, London. It contains over three hundred articles on a variety of Christian topics and themes. Some of the authors include professor John Barton from Oxford University, Cynthia B. Cohen from Georgetown University and Martin Marty from the University of Chicago. It contains twenty one color pictures and ninety six black and white illustrations.

In his introduction Bowden noted that most Christians have only a limited understanding of the traditions of their own religion. The Christian Century called the encyclopedia „a major scholarly achievement“ but noted that it relied entirely on scholars from Europe and North America. Religion writer Richard Ostling called this book, together with its companion release, the Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd ed.), „2005’s books of the year in religion“, and commented that the Encyclopedia takes a „relatively moderate approach to literary and historical disputes.“ Publishers Weekly said: „Overall, this encyclopedia is a must-have for any Christian reference shelf.“

Социалистическая партия (Фландрия)

Каролине Женне

1978

Брюссель

социал-демократия

Социнтерн,
Партия европейских социалистов, Прогрессивный альянс

13 из 150 (2010)

1 из 21 (2014)

Социалистическая партия (варианты перевода: Социалистическая партия — Другие, Социалистическая партия — Иные; нидерл. Socialistische Partij Anders; SP.A) — политическая партия социал-демократического направления в Бельгии, действующая во Фламандском сообществе.

В 1885 году в Бельгии была основана Бельгийская рабочая партия, которая в 1945 году была преобразована в Бельгийскую социалистическую партию. В 1978 году в БСП произошёл раскол по языковому признаку, и были образованы Социалистическая партия Валлонии и Социалистическая партия Фландрии.

На парламентских выборах 13 июня 2010 года партия завоевала третье место по популярности во Фландрии, получив 14,6% поддержки (659.043 голоса) и заняв 13 мест в нижней палате Федерального парламента.

Австрия • Бельгия (Валлония • Фландрия) • Болгария • Великобритания (ЛП • Северная Ирландия) • Венгрия (ВСП • СДПВ) • Дания • Германия • Греция • Ирландия • Испания • Италия • Кипр • Латвия • Литва • Люксембург • Мальта • Нидерланды • Норвегия • Польша (ДЛС • УТ) • Португалия • Румыния • Словакия • Словения • Финляндия • Франция • Чехия • Швеция • Эстония

I. William Zartman

Ira William Zartman is Professor Emeritus at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) of Johns Hopkins University. He earlier directed the school’s Conflict Management, and African Studies programs and continues to teach on Africa-related subjects. He holds the Jacob Blaustein Chair in International Organizations and Conflict Resolution. He is a founder and current Board Chairman of the International Peace and Security Institute (IPSI).

He taught at the University of South Carolina, at New York University where he served as department head and as associate director of the Center for International Studies, and at the American University in Cairo. Professor Zartman was also Olin Professor at the U.S. Naval Academy, Halevy Professor at the Institute of Political Studies in Paris and visiting professor at the American University in Paris. William Zartman was a consultant to the U.S. Department of State, President of the Tangier American Legation Museum Society, and past president of the Middle East Studies Association and the American Institute for Maghrib Studies. He is also a member of the Steering Committee of Processes of International Negotiations based at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Austria. He received an honorary doctorate from the Catholic University of Louvain and his Ph.D. in International Relations from Yale University.

Anton Schreiner

Anton Schreiner (* 19. September 1873 in Neudörfl; † 23. Mai 1932 in Walbersdorf) war ein österreichischer Ziegeleibesitzer und Politiker (CS). Schreiner war verheiratet, Abgeordneter zum Burgenländischen Landtag, Landeshauptmann und Abgeordneter zum Nationalrat.

Anton Schreiner wurde als Sohn des Fleischhauers und Gastwirts Matthias Schreiner aus Neudörfl geboren. Er besuchte die Volksschule in Wiener Neustadt und die Realschule in Sopron, an der er 1893 die Matura ablegte. Schreiner wechselte danach an die k.u.k. Technische Militärakademie in Wien und wurde 1896 Leutnant. Er diente im Festungsartillerieregiment Nr. 1 in Wien und war ab 1901 im Reserveverhältnis. Schreiner bewirtschaftete in der Folge den Besitz in Walbersdorf, der eine Ziegelei und eine Ökonomie umfasste. Während des Ersten Weltkriegs diente Schreiner wiederum zwischen 1914 und 1918 als Hauptmann der Reserve und war zuletzt Festungskommandant in Pola für das Panzerfort Stoja und die Küstenbatterien Obina und Verdulla. Ab Anfang 1918 bis Kriegsende war Schreiner Lehrer für Artillerie und Schießwesen an der Technischen Militärakademie in Mödling und übersiedelte anschließend wieder nach Walbersdorf.

Er war 1921 Mitglied des Leitungsausschusses der Christlichsozialen Partei für Westungarn 1921 und 1922 Mitglied der Verwaltungsstelle für das Burgenland. Er fungierte von 1924 bis 1931 als Kammerrat der Burgenländischen Handels- und Gewerbekammer und hatte zwischen dem 24. Juli 1929 und seinem Tod die Funktion des Landesparteiobmanns der Christlichsozialen Partei inne. Schreiner stand vom 10. Jänner 1928 bis zum 24. Juli 1929 als Landeshauptmann der Landesregierung Schreiner I vor und war vom 10. Dezember 1930 bis zum 28. Oktober 1931 Landeshauptmann der Landesregierung Schreiner II. Schreiner war zudem zwischen dem 2. Dezember 1930 und dem 23. Jänner 1931 Abgeordneter zum Nationalrat. Danach war Schreiner ab dem 5. Dezember 1930 Abgeordneter zum Landtag; er wurde am 23. Mai 1932 von dem aus Rohrbach stammenden Stephan Zeltner, einem ehemaligen Arbeiter in der Ziegelei Schreiners, den es wegen der Entlassung seines Bruders zur Vergeltung drängte, erschossen.

Erste Republik:
Landesverwalter Robert Davy | Alfred Rausnitz
Landeshauptleute Alfred Rausnitz | Alfred Walheim | Josef Rauhofer | Anton Schreiner | Johann Thullner | Anton Schreiner | Alfred Walheim | Hans Sylvester
Gauleiter Tobias Portschy

Zweite Republik:
Ludwig Leser | Lorenz Karall | Johann Wagner | Josef Lentsch | Hans Bögl | Theodor Kery | Johann Sipötz | Karl Stix | Hans Niessl

Vulcanodontidae

Vulcanodon in einer plastischen Lebenddarstellung

 Vulcanodon

 Tazoudasaurus

 Shunosaurus

 Omeisaurus

 Neosauropoda

Die Vulcanodontidae ist eine Familie primitiver sauropoder Dinosaurier. Ursprünglich wurde sie von Cooper (1984) aufgestellt, um die frühen Sauropoden Vulcanodon und Barapasaurus zusammenzufassen. In den Folgejahren wurden der Vulcanodontidae weitere Gattungen vorläufig zugeschrieben.

Nach jüngeren Analysen (Upchurch, 1995) wurde jedoch die Gültigkeit der Familie in Frage gestellt, da Barapasaurus viel näher mit späteren Sauropoden verwandt war als mit Vulcanodon. Barapasaurus wurde nun innerhalb der Gruppe der Eusauropoden klaffifiziert, eine Gruppe, die alle Sauropoden mit einschließt, außer sehr basale Gattungen wie Vulcanodon.

Im Jahr 2004 wurde der neue, sehr urtümliche Sauropode Tazoudasaurus beschrieben, wobei deutliche Ähnlichkeiten mit Vulcanodon festgestellt wurden. Um diese Ähnlichkeiten zu untermauern, definierten diese Forscher die Vulcanodontidae neu als Schwestergruppe der Eusauropoden, die Vulcanodon und Tazoudasaurus umfasst. Heutige Autoren folgen jedoch diesen Vorschlag meistens nicht und betrachten die Vulcanodontidae damit weiterhin als ungültig. In der folgenden Beschreibung bezeichnet die Vulcanodontidae die Gruppierung VulcanodonTazoudasaurus.

Sowohl Vulcanodon als auch Tazoudasaurus sind durch verhältnismäßig gute Skelettfunde bekannt: Während von Vulcanodon ein Teilskelett aus Simbabwe bekannt ist, kennt man von Tazoudasaurus zwei Teilskelette aus dem Hohen Atlas von Marokko. Tazoudasaurus ist darüber hinaus der einzige bisher gefundene Nicht-Eusauropode, von dem gutes Schädelmaterial bekannt ist. Obwohl früher vermutet wurde, dass Vulcanodon aus dem Hettangium stammt, zeigen neue Studien, dass er tatsächlich aus dem Toarcium stammt; damit ist er ein Zeitgenosse von Tazoudasaurus.

Beide Gattungen gehören zu den primitivsten Sauropoden, die bekannt sind, und zeigen noch viele Merkmale, die sonst nur bei Prosauropoden gefunden wurden. So zeigen die guterhaltenen Schädelüberreste von Tazoudasaurus noch einen nach vorne spitz zulaufenden Schädel, wobei die sich nicht überlappenden Zähne über die gesamte Länge des Unterkiefers verliefen. Spätere Sauropoden hatten eine gerundete Schnauze mit sich überlappenden Zähnen, die sich meist nur im vorderen Bereich des Kiefers befinden. Obwohl es sich bei Tazoudasaurus und Vulcanodon definitiv um quadrupede (vierbeinige) Tiere handelt, waren die Mittelfußknochen (Metatarsalia) von Vulcanodon im Vergleich zu denen anderer Sauropoden sehr lang (mehr als ein Drittel der Tibialänge) und ähneln damit denen der Prosauropoden und Theropoden. Eusauropoden hatten, als weitere Anpassung an eine vierfüßige Lebensweise, lediglich kurze Mittelfußknochen (ein viertel der Tibialänge), die fast horizontal auflagen (semidigitigrade). Sowohl Vulcanodon als auch Tazoudasaurus zeichnen sich durch einige gemeinsame primitive Merkmale (Plesiomorphien) aus, die bei anderen Sauropoden unbekannt sind; zum Beispiel sind die Zehenknochen länger als breit, und das untere Ende des Pubis (Schambeins) zeigt eine schräge, schürzenähnliche Struktur.

Es existiert eine Anzahl weiterer Gattungen, die traditionell der Vulcanodontidae zugeordnet werden. Viele dieser Gattungen gelten als Nomen dubium, ihre Gültigkeit ist also unsicher – darunter sind der nur durch einen Kiefer bekannte Chinshakiangosaurus, der durch ein Teilskelett bekannte Kunmingosaurus und der durch drei fragmentarische Knochen bekannte Zizhongosaurus. Die Stellung dieser Gattungen bleibt unklar.

Der in Deutschland gefundene, durch Beinknochen bekannte Zwergsauropode Ohmdenosaurus gilt zwar meistens als gültige Gattung, seine Stellung außerhalb der Eusauropoden ist jedoch lediglich provisorisch. Kotasaurus aus Indien wurde erst kürzlich in phylogenetischen Studien mit einbezogen und gilt demnach als ein primitiver Sauropode außerhalb der Eusauropoda.

Messe I.X-VI.X

Messe I.X-VI.X is the tenth studio album by the Norwegian experimental collective Ulver and the Tromsø Chamber Orchestra with additional aid from composer Martin Romberg. Written and produced by Ulver, released on October 8, 2013, via Jester Records and Kscope. The album has been described as a „peace mass for Lebanon“.

On September 17, 2013, a trailer was released, and on October 4, 2013 the track „Shri Schneider“, was released for streaming via Pitchfork Media.

The music was commissioned in 2012 by the Tromsø Kulturhus (House of Culture) in Norway, in a cooperation with the Arctic Opera and Philharmonic Orchestra cultural institution. It was composed and first performed live by Ulver, alongside the Tromsø Chamber Orchestra on September 21, 2012. The band then took the recordings back to Crystal Canyon, Oslo and spent winter and spring in post-production, honing the material for its studio-equivalent.

Six compositions altogether written and produced, recorded and mixed by Ulver, this time consisting of Ole Alexander Halstensgård, Kristoffer Rygg, Jørn H. Sværen and Tore Ylwizaker, with additional aid and advice from composer Martin Romberg who also arranged the music for the 21 members of Tromsø Chamber Orchestra. The album also features contemporary composers/musicians Ole-Henrik Moe and Kari Rønnekleiv.

The band named some of their influences for Messe I.X–VI.X:

Gorecki’s No. 3: Symphony of Sorrowful Songs. It haunted us for years and probably always will. The Gustavs Mahler and Holst. Sound collages from When or Nurse with Wound. 70’s kraut and synth. Ash Ra and Autobahn. 80’s pop scores. John Carpenter and Tin Drum. Terry Riley, again and again and again. Saint John of the Cross.

Opening song „As Syrians Pour In, Lebanon Grapples with Ghosts of a Bloody Past“ was named after a news piece by Reuters concerning the flood of Syrian refugees into Lebanon following the ongoing Syrian Civil War. However, vocalist Kristoffer Rygg has stated: „This appropriation is not any more, or less, political other than an indication of concern. We live in troubled times. The song itself has a distinct Middle Eastern feel to it and coupled with sounds of vultures and war that title seemed both appropriate as well as contemporary. But we have no ideology for sale. Only our sadness.“

Following its original performance at Tromsø Kulturhus in Tromsø, Norway, with Tromsø Chamber Orchestra, on September 21, 2012, Ulver have performed Messe I.X–VI.X in its entirety a further two times: On May 20, 2013 at Wave Gotik Treffen, Leipzig, Germany with the Stüba Philharmonie, Volkspalast and on November 16, 2013 at Teatro Regio, Parma, Italy with the MG_INC Orchestra.

Upon its release, Messe I.X–VI.X received positive reviews from music critics. Alex Franquelli, writing for The Quietus described the album as „a challenging work and an album of rare beauty.“ Jamie Twort, writing for SputnikMusic rated the album 4.5/5, describing Messe I.X–VI.X as „a phenomenal album, combining intense atmosphere with the sort of cinematic sense of drama akin to some of the most powerful film scores.“ Gregory Burkart, writing for Fear.net described Messe I.X–VI.X as „one of the band’s most surreal and haunting projects to date, combining their unorthodox soundscapes (which often incorporate elements of electronic music, metal, rock and folk instrumentation, blended through inventive production techniques) with a full symphony orchestra.“ Falk Wehmeier, writing for Metal.de wrote „Ulver have found a perfect expression of their perception of a world void of home or footing… Within the scope of the chosen style, Ulver couldn’t have clothed their message better in sound.“ Marianna Kofinaki, writing for BURST Magazine noted, „Saying that this masterpiece is one of the best albums of the year would be a huge understatement,“ concluding Messe I.X–VI.X to be „a timeless and priceless masterpiece, creating a trailblazing musical pathos its own!“ Benjamin Bland, writing for Echoes and Dust said Messe I.X–VI.X was a „Stirringly brilliant example of the continuing power of imaginatively deployed classical instrumentation in the twenty-first century.“ This is Book’s Music said „Messe I.X-VI.X could be considered a classical album… regardless of what one considers this, it’s an engrossing listen.“ Robert Dłucik, writing for Polish online magazine Rock Area have Messe I.X–VI.X a 10/10 rating. Extreme Metal fanzine No Clean Singing described Messe I.X–VI.X as „Simultaneously daring and difficult, challenging yet compelling, filled with a warmth of emotion yet governed by a calculating intellect.” Tor Martin Bøe, writing for Verdens Gang gave the album a 6/6 rating. Martin Anfinsen, writing for Norwegian media magazine Adresseavisen rated the album 6/6. Chris Noir, writing for music blog Time Does Not Rest said „…your heart intermits for a second and your flesh creeps because of the terrible beauty of the music.“ Austen R. Walsh, writing for arts magazine The Arts Fuse described Messe I.X–VI.X as „a brilliant blend of classical, dark ambient, and hard rock music.“ Dutch media magazine hifi.nl rated the album 9/10. Daniel Schnettler, writing for online Spanish webzine Noise rated the album 10/10.

Military Officers Association of America

The Military Officers Association of America is a professional association of United States military officers. It is a nonprofit organization that advocates for a strong national defense, but is politically nonpartisan.[citation needed] The association supports government policies that benefit military members and their families. Its membership is made up of active duty, retired, and former commissioned officers and warrant officers from the uniformed services of the United States.

Originally called the Retired Officers Association, the organization that is now the Military Officers Association of America was founded in 1929. The association’s first headquarters in Los Angeles, California. The association’s goal was to provide advice and assistance to fellow military officers throughout United States . The organization also promoted fraternal relations among America’s uniformed services.

The association moved its headquarters to into the Washington area in 1944. At that time, the organization had approximately 2,600 members. In 2002, the association changed its name to the Military Officers Association of America. The change took effect on 1 January 2003.

Today, the Military Officers Association of America has over 380,000 members. It is the largest military officers‘ organization in the United States. In addition to supporting a strong national defense program, the association provides military benefits counseling, career transition assistance, and educational assistance for children of military families (including families of enlisted personnel).

Membership in the association is open to active duty, retired, and former commissioned officers and warrant officers from the uniformed services of the United States including the National Guard and Reserve components. The seven uniformed services are the United States Army, the United States Marine Corps, the United States Navy, the United States Air Force, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Surviving spouses of deceased officers are eligible for auxiliary membership.

The association is governed by a board of directors. The board is composed of 36 members from all seven uniformed services. Board members also represent six geographic regions. The board elects its chairman and three vice chairmen. It also elects the association’s president, chief financial officer, and secretary. The president oversees the association’s day-to-day operations. The association’s headquarters is located in Alexandria, Virginia.

The association promotes military professionals and encourages government policies that support military members and their families. The association staff identifies important national defense issues and provides association members with regular updates on key issues and pending legislation. The association advocates for a strong national defense, but does not get involved in military strategy debates or support specific weapons systems.

Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis

Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (CAP) is an unclassified Betaproteobacteria that is a common bacterial community member of wastewater treatment plants performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) and is a polyphosphate-accumulating organisms. The role of CAP in EBPR was elucidated using culture-independent approaches such as 16S rRNA clone banks that showed the Betaproteobacteria dominated lab-scale EBPR reactors. Further work using clone banks and fluorescence in situ hybridization identified a group of bacteria, closely related to Rhodocyclus as the dominant member of lab-scale communities.

Currently, no cultured isolates of CAP exist, so the phylogeny of CAP strains is based purely of molecular biology techniques. To date, the polyphosphate kinase (ppk1) and the PHA synthase (phaC) genes have been used to characterise CAP populations at a higher resolution that 16S rRNA. The ppk1 phylogeny is more frequently used and groups CAP into two major divisions: type I and type II. Each of these types has a number of clades that are given a letter designation, e.g. IA, IIA, IIB, IIC. An environmental survey of wastewater treatment plants and natural waterways in California and Wisconsin in the USA revealed at least five CAP I (IA .. IE) clades and seven CAP II (IIA .. IIG) clades.

CAP has yet to be cultured, but the ability to enrich lab-scale EBPR communities with up to 80% CAP has enabled research into its metabolism using meta-omic approaches. EBPR is generally associated with three stages: anaerobic, aerobic, and settling. For CAP to dominate in EBPR reactors, they must be able to thrive under these conditions. During the anaerobic phase, CAP can take up volatile fatty acids and store these simple carbon sources intracellularly as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). At the same time, intracellular polyphosphate is degraded to form ATP, releasing phosphate into the medium. During the subsequent aerobic phase, PHAs are used for energy production and phosphate is taken up from the medium to form polyphosphate. Genomic reconstruction from an EBPR reactor enriched with CAP IIA revealed it to contain two different types of phosphate transporters, the high-affinity Pst and low-affinity Pit transporters, as well as using the Embden-Meyerhof (EM) glycogen degradation pathway. Furthermore, the CAP IIA genome contains nitrogen and CO2 fixation genes, which indicate CAP has adapted to environments limited in carbon and nitrogen. One interesting discrepancy between the genomic data and reactor performance data was the lack of a functional respiratory nitrate reductase gene. Previous work had shown CAP could use nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor, but the genomic data indicate the periplasmic nitrate reductase gene could not function in the electron transport chain, as it lacked the necessary quinol reductase subunit. To resolve these issues, lab-scale EBPR reactors enriched with CAP IA and CAP IIA were tested for their nitrate-reduction capabilities. Interestingly, CAP IA was able to couple nitrate reduction to phosphate uptake, while the genomically characterised CAP IIA could not.

Online reputatiemanagement

Online reputatiemanagement is het met digitale technieken beïnvloeden en manipuleren van de beeldvorming van een persoon, een handelsmerk of een organisatie zoals die via de sociale media gestalte krijgt. Aandacht gaat naar het beheersen van het publieke sentiment door een positieve beeldvorming op te roepen of een negatief beeld te vermijden.

Reputatiemanagement is de strategie om een gunstig imago op te roepen of een ongunstig imago te vermijden. Reputatie ontstaat door communicatie, klantgerichtheid, maatschappelijke verantwoordelijkheid en de kwaliteit van producten en diensten.

Technieken en methoden bij online reputatiemanagement zijn zoekmachineoptimalisatie, online promotie, het creëren van nieuwe inhouden, het aanwezig zijn op het sociale web zoals forums, blogs, sociale netwerken) en het controleren van websites om negatieve inhoud te vermijden. Proactieve reputatieopbouw is het onmiddellijk reageren op onaangekondigde publieke kritiek, het aanbieden van gratis producten en het schrijven van positieve opmerkingen. Met het right to be forgotten is er ook voor particulieren een nieuwe manier gekomen om hun online reputatie te sturen.

Online reputatiemanagement bestaat uit verschillende onderdelen, namelijk social media monitoring, webcare en ‚zoekmachine reputatiemanagement‘, ook wel bekend als ontgooglen.. In de loop der tijd is online reputatiemanagement ook gejuridiseerd. Advocaten vechten onrechtmatige online publicaties aan waarbij geen rectificatie, maar verwijdering van het bericht gevraagd wordt.

Online reputatiemanagement kwam gelijktijdig met het web 2.0 en vooral bij de komst van eBay waar feedback en waarderingen van gebruikers centraal staan. Kopers en verkopers kregen een online reputatie om anderen te helpen bij koop- of verkoopbeslissingen.

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