Aspen Seasons

Aspen Seasons is a special anthology published semi-annually by Aspen Comics. The series features special short stories focussing on specific Aspen characters. While these stories are not usually vital to their regular titles, they do add more depth to the context of the comic in question. The anthology has also been a useful outlet for introducing new Aspen artists such as Micah Gunnell and Marcus To.

Written by J.T. Krul; Drawn by Koi Turnbull; Inked by Jason Gorder; Coloured by Christina Strain

Written by J.T. Krul; Drawn by Marcus To; Inked by Jason Gorder; Coloured by David Morán

Written by J.T. Krul; Drawn by Micah Gunnell; Coloured by Beth Sotelo

Written by J.T. Krul; Drawn by Marcus To; Inked by Don Ho; Coloured by David Morán

Written and Painted by Peter Steigerwald

Written and Painted by Peter Steigerwald

Written by Vince Hernandez; Drawn by Khari Evans; Inked by Nick Nix; Coloured by Paul Mounts

A release has been mentioned for this anthology, but not officially confirmed.

Hermann Hesse

Hermann Hesse (riegádan suoidnemánu 2. beaivvi 1877 – jápmán borgemánu 9. beaivvi 1962) lei duiskalaš diktačálli, girječálli ja govvadáiddár, gii oaččui Nobela girjjálašvuođa bálkkašumi jagi 1946. Su dovdoseamos girjjit leat Der Steppenwolf (Ádjoeanagumpe) ja Das Glasperlenspiel (Lássabearalspeallu).

Hesse riegádii kristtalaš bearrašii Calw-nammasaš smávva gávpogis Schwarzwaldis. Su vánhemat leigga leamaš vuolggahussárdnideaddjit Indias, gos su eadni Marie Gundert lei riegádan jagi 1842. Hesse áhčči Johannes Hesse (r. 1847) lei báldáduiskalaš ja lei eret Estlánddas. Hesse vánhemiin lei miššudnaprenttehat, maid Hesse áddjá Hermann Gundert jođihii.

Hermann Hesse elii su eallima vuosttas jagiin birrasiin, gos svábalaš pietismma jurdagat váikkuhedje gávpoga atmosferii. Jagi 1888 bearaš fárrii Baselii ja orui doppe vihtta jagi, muhto bođii dan maŋŋel ruovttoluotta Calwii. Hesse čađahii láhttenskuvlla Göppingenis ja čuovvovaččat son álggii studeret Maulbronna evangelalaš-luteránalaš semináras, muhto son lei biddjon eret skuvlejumis.

Earuheami maŋŋá šadde ollu riiddut váhnemiin ja máŋga geahččaleami iešguđetlágan internáhtaskuvllain ja – skuvllain. Hesse lei šlundon ja son muitalii girjjistis njukčamánu 20. beaivvi jagi 1892 ahte sus leat jurdagat iešsorbmemii (“Háliidan vuodjut eatnamii dego eahketguovssu”). Son geahččalii miessemánus jagi 1892 iešsorbmema Bad Bolla internáhtaskuvllas. Das čuovui ahte son sirdojuvvui fas ođđa internáhtaskuvlii Stettenii ja duokkot maŋŋil bártniid internáhtaskuvlii Baselii. Jagi 1892 loahpas Hesse sirdásii logahahkii Cannstattii. Čuovvovaš jagi áigge son čađahii doppe vuosttas jagi dutkosa, muhto gaskkalduhtii skuvlla vázzima fargga dan maŋŋá.

Hesse álggahii vuosttas geardde skuvlema girjegávpejassan Esslingenis, muhto gárgidii golmma beaivvi maŋŋá. Giđđat 1894 son álggii 14 mánnosaš mekanihkarskuvlejumi Calwa doardnadiibmofabrihkas. Suivadis jugaheapmi ja fiilen boktalii Hesses goittotge doaivaga máhccat intellektuála bargui. Golggotmánus 1895 son lei gárvvis álggahit skuvlejumi girjegávpejassan Tübingenis ja maiddái čatnasit dasa. Hesse gieđahalai daid nuorravuođa vásáhusaid maŋŋil románas Unterm Rad (Muhtin nuorravuohta).

Hesse lei golggotmánu 17. beaivvi jagi 1895 rájes barggus Heckenhauera girjegávppis Tübingenis. Girjegávpi deattuhii teologiija, filologiija ja vuoigatvuođadiehtaga. Hesse, oahppagándda, bargun lei dárkkistit girjjiid, báhkket, ordnet ja arkiveret. 12-diibmosaš bargobeivviid maŋŋá son váccii vel priváhta skuvlejumi. Girjjiid lohkan lei sutnje kompensašuvdnan váilevaš sosiálalaš eallimis guhkes sotnabeivviin, go ii lean bargu. Hesse logai teologalaš girjjálašvuođa lassin earenoamážit Goethe, maŋŋeleappo maiddái Lessinga ja Schillera sihke teavsttaid mat gusket greikkalaš mytologiijaide. Jagi 1896 su dikta Madonna almmustuvai muhtin bláđis Wienis ja maŋŋil Organ für Dichtkunst und Kritik –bláđis almmustuvve lasi divttat.

Jagi 1898 Hesse barggai girjegávpejasa reaŋgan ja dinii govttolaččat, mii dáhkidii sutnje ekonomalaš iešmearrideami váhnemiin. Dan áigge son logai eanemus duiskkalaš romantihka áigodaga girjjiid, earenoamážit Clemens Brentanona, Joseph von Eichendorffa ja Novalisa girjjiid. Reivviin, maid son sáddii vánhemiidda, Hesse muitalii ipmárdusas das, ahte “dáiddáriin estetihkka buhtte morála”. Čakčat 1898 Hesse almmustahtii vuosttas smávva diktačoakkáldaga Romantische Lieder ja geasset 1899 prosačoakkáldaga Eine Stunde hinter Mitternacht. Goappásge girjjis šattai ekonomalaš fiásko. Diktačoakkáldaga 600 stuhka prentehusas vuvdojuvvojedje dušše 54 gihppaga ja maiddái prosačoakkáldaga 600 stuhka prentehusat vuvdojuvvojedje oalle hihtásit. Leipziglaš goasttideaddji Eugen Diederichs anii Hesse girjjiid kvalitehtalaččat allaárvvožin ja doalai daid almmustahttima baicca nuorra girječálli doarjumin go gánnáhahtti gávpedoaibman.

Čavčča 1899 rájes Hesse lei barggus árvvus adnojuvvon antikvariáhtas Baselis. Danin go su vánhemiin leigga jeavddalaš oktavuođat Basela oahppan olbmuid bearrašiidda, Hesse fállojuvvui dál earenoamáš vejolašvuohta oažžut ođđa humanisttalaš – ja dáiddalaš inspirašuvnna. Seammás Basel fálai iehčanas girječállái, gii johtá iežas bálgáid ala, vejolašvuođa geassásit ráfálaš diliide guhkes mátkkiin, mainna son čieŋui dáiddalaš iežasguorahallamii ja geahččalii návcca olggosbuktit áiccastagaidis girjjálaččat. Jagi 1900 Hesse lei bestejuvvon militeara bálvalusas. Su čalmmiid oainnus ledje váttisvuođat ja nearva- sihke oaivebávččas ledje váivin olles eallima.

Jagi 1901 Hesse dagai duohtan niegus ja mátkkoštii vuosttas geardde Itáliai. Seamma jagi son sirdásii ođđa bargoaddi bálvalussii Wattenwyl-antikvariáhtii Baselis. Seamma áigge son oaččui eanet vejolašvuođaid ja fálaldagaid almmustahttit divttaidis ja iešguđetlágan oanehis teavsttaidis. Dain publikašuvnnain ožžojuvvon mávssut divodedje maiddái su ekonomalaš dili. Goasttideaddji Samuel Fischer beroštišgođii Hesses, ja jagi 1904 almmustuvai Fischera goasttidan romána Peter Camenzind. Girjjis šattai su vuosttas dovddus romána ja das ovddošguvlui son basttii eallit friija girječállin.

Girjjiid menestumi dihte Hesse sáhtii vuođđudit bearraša. Son náitalii Maria Bernoulli jagi 1904 ja soai fárriiga Gaienhofenii Bodensee gáddái. Sudnuide riegádedje golbma bártni. Hesse čálii Gaienhofenis nuppi romána Muhtin nuorravuohta, mii almmustuvai jagi 1906. Čuovvovaš jagiin son čálii lagamustá muitalusaid ja divttaid. Čuovvovaš romána Gertrud mearkkašii sutnje goittotge dáiddalaš kriissa – sus ledje váttisvuođat gárvvistit girjji, ja maŋŋil son anii dan eahpelihkostuvvan. Maiddái sutnje šadde váttisvuođat náittosdilis ja son oaččui mátkegaskka dillái mátkkoštettiin Ceylonii ja Indonesiai. Doppe son háliidii oažžut vuoiŋŋalaš ja oskkolaš inspirašuvnna, amas lihkostuvvat, muhto aŋkke mátkkis lei mearkkašahtti váikkuhus su girjjiide. Dan maŋŋil go Hesse bođii ruoktot, bearaš fárrii Bernii jagi 1912, muhto dátge fárren ii sihkkun eret náittosdili čuolmmaid, mii bođii ovdan Hesse jagi 1914 almmustuvvan románas Rosshalde.

Go vuosttas máilmmisoahti álggii jagi 1914, Hesse almmuhii iežas eaktodáhtolažžan Duiskka ambassádas, danin go “son ii bastán čohkkát liegga uvdnadollagáttis seammás go nuorra girječállit jápme soahtešiljuin.” Son lei gávnnahuvvon návccaheapmin soahtái ja son mearriduvvui Duiskka ambassádii dikšut soahtefáŋgaáššiid. Dán barggus Hesse fuolahii soahtefáŋggain girjjiid čoakkidettiin ja sáddedettiin sidjiide. Neue Zürcher Zeitung –bláđis almmuhuvvui Hesse čálus O Freunde, nicht diese Töne, mas son doarjalii Duiskka intelligeanta olbmuide, vai sii eai ravggaše nationalisttalaš polemihkkii. Daid dáhpáhusaid maŋŋil šadde dakkár čuovvumušat ahte Hesse govvidii daid maŋŋeleappo stuorra nuppástussan eallimisttis. Vuosttas geardde son lei stuorra politihkalaš nákkáhallama gaskkas: preassa rohkkáhii su vuostá, poastta bokte bohte bahámielat reivvet ja boares ustibat bátti botkejedje suinna. Ustit Theodor Heuss ja fránskkalaš girječálli Romain Rolland goittotge doarjjuiga Hesse. Dát riiddut almmusvuođas eai leat vel ráfon, go Hesse gárttai ođđa vuostegieđageavadiid dihtii čiekŋalassii kriisii: su áhčči jámii njukčamánu 8. beaivvi 1916, su bárdni buohccái duođalaččat ja su eamit buohccái skitsofreniijii. Hesse gárttai gaskkalduhttit soahtefáŋggaid áššiid dikšuma ja mannat psykiátralaš dikšui. Divššu čuovvumuššan lei dat, ahte son beroštišgođii ollu psykoanalysii ja oahpásmuvai persovnnalaččat Sigmund Freuda oahppái Carl Gustaf Jungii. Dát jurddafáttát dagahedje Hesses duohta dáiddalaš inspirašuvnna ja son čálii čakča- ja golggotmánus jagi 1917 dušše golmma vahku áigge romána Demian. Girji lei almmustuvvon soađi maŋŋá jagi 1919 čiegus namain Emil Sinclair.

Go Hesse basttii máhccat dábálaš eallimii jagi 1919, su náittosdilli lei billašuvvan. Su eamit lei buohccán duođalaš psykosii, muhto Hesse ii sáhttán govahallat oktasaš eallima Mariain, vaikko son livččiige dearvvašmuvvan. Hesse fárrii okto Ticinoi, gos son ásaiduvai viimmat Montagnola gillái. Son láigohii njeallje smávva lanja mearkkalaš šloahttalágan huksehusas, man namma lei Casa Camuzzi. Doppe son jotkkii čállit girjjiid, muhto maid málegođii, mii váikkuhii su čuovvovaš stuorra muitalussii Klingsors letzter Sommer. Jagi 1922 almmustuvai Hesse India-romána Siddhartha. Girji govvida girječálli ráhkesvuođa indialaš kultuvrii ja ásialaš viisodagaide, maidda son lei oahpásmuvvan vánhemiid váikkuhusa geažil. Jagi 1923 Hesse náitalii ráhkis Ruth Wengera, gii lei sveitslaš girječálli Lisa Wengera nieida ja Meret Oppenheima muoŧŧá, muhto dát náittoslihttu lei juo álggu rájes mannan endorii. Seamma jagi Hesse oaččui Sveitsa riikkavulošvuođa.

Su čuovvovaš stuorát girjjit, jagi 1925 almmustuvvan Kurgast ja jagi 1927 almmustuvvan Die Nürnberger Reise, ledje eallingearddálaš muitalusat, main lei ironalaš ivdni. Girjjit ledje addán mearkkaid boahttevaš menestuvvi románas. Jagi 1927 almmustuvvan Ádjoeanagumpe lei Hesse eanemus menestuvvan girji. Hesse 50. riegádanbeaivvi gudnin almmustuvai seamma jagi maiddái vuosttas eallingeardi, man su ustit Hugo Ball lei čállán. Fargga menestuvvi romána maŋŋá, Hesse, oktonas ádjoeanagumpe, vásihii ođđa nuppástusa ráhkistuvadettiin Ninon Dolbinii, geas šattai goalmmát eamit maŋŋil. Nuppástus láidestii dualisttalaš ovttaseallimii ja proseassas šattai romána Narziss und Goldmund (Narkissos ja gollenjálbmi), mii almmustuvai jagi 1930.

Jagi 1931 Hesse vulggii Casa Camuzzi láigovisttis. Hesse-guovttos Ninoniin fárriiga stuorát dállui Montagnola gili olggobealde. Dát dállu, Casa Hesse, huksejuvvui girječálli doaivumušaid mielde, ja su ustit H. C. Bodmer luobahii dan sutnje bissovaš geavahussii. Dálá áigge dállu lea priváhta oamastusas, iige leat vejolaš fitnat das geahččat siskkáldasat.

Jagi 1933 Hesse náitalii goalmmát geardde ja álggii plánet maŋimus stuorra girjji, Lássabearalspealu. Jagi 1932 son almmustuvai vuos muitalusa Die Morgenlandfahrt (Mátki iđida eatnamii). Nationalisttalaš sosialisttalaš bellodaga loktaneapmi fápmui Duiskkas jagi 1933 fuolastahtii Hesse ollu. Bertolt Brecht ja Thomas Mann, geat fárriiga eret Duiskkas seamma jagi, guossástalaiga vuosttažettiin Hesse luhtte Sveitsas. Hesse geahččalii iežas vuogi mielde doaibmat Duiskkas ráđđedeaddji gárggiideami vuostá. Son lei čállán juo máŋgga logi jagi girjekritihkaid Duiskka bláđiide, ja dál son bealuštišgođii dain fámolaččat judalaččaid ja eará nationalisttalaš sosialisttalaččaid doarrádallan girječálliid. 1930-logu rájes ii oktage duiskkalaš bláđđi šat duostan almmustahttit Hesse artihkkaliid. Hesse gávnnai millii dorvobáikki go lei bargame Lássabearalspealu dan botta go politihkalaš nággu lei jođus ja máilmmisoađi garra balut bohte ođđasiin máilbmái. Girji almmustuvai Sveitsas jagi 1943. Hesse oaččui jagi 1946 Nobela girjjálašvuođa bálkkašumi ja das Lássabearalspealus lei mearkkašahtti rolla. Jagi 1950 son oaččui maiddái Frankfurt gávpoga Goethe –bálkkašumi ja Wilhelm Raabe –bálkkašumi ja jagi 1955 Duiskka girjegávpejasaid ráfibálkkašumi.

Nuppi máilmmisoađi maŋŋá Hesse návccat guorranišgohte. Son čálii vel muitalusaid ja divttaid, muhto ii šat ovttage romána. Reivviid dulvi dagahii maid ollu barggu sutnje – dat lei haddi das ahte son vásihii stuorra bivnnutvuođa ođđa duiskagielat lohkkibuolvadaga bealde, mii bivddii Montagnola “viisses eallilan olbmos” rávvagiid eallima várás. Hermann Hesse jámii borgemánu 9. beaivvi 1962 85-jahkásažžan vuoiŋŋašvardimii ja son hávdáduvvui Montagnola lahka San Abbondiona hávdeeatnamii, gosa maid Hugo Ball lea hávdáduvvon.

Hesse girjjiin leat bistevaččat temát dego humanisttalaš olmmošipmárdusat ja olbmo luonddu čiekŋalit ipmirdeami dárbu. Daidda leat báhcán luottat maid girječálli beroštupmái psykoanalysii, oskkoldagaide, buddhalaš ja hindulaš filosofiijaide, Nietzsche ja Dostojevski sihke eksistensialismii.

Hesse árra girjjit ledje riegádan vel 1800-logu árbevirrui. Hesse divttat ja Peter Camenzind –girjji giella ja stiila gullet romantihkkii. Hesse ieš anii Peter Camenzind –girjji Gottfried Kellera Der grüne Heinrich –tiipasaš gárggiideapmirománan (Bildungsroman). Girjjiin Hesse sajáiduvai vuostálastit šaddi industrialiserenvuođa ja gávpogiserenvuođa čájeheamen attáldagaid jurddašit Duiskka nuoraid lihkadusa jurdagiid mielde. Hesse luobahii maŋŋil dain ođđaromantihkalaš hámi ja sisdoalu sárgosiin. Peter Camenzind –girjji antiteesi –ráhkadus, mii oidno gávpoga ja dálonguovllu, almmáiolbmo ja nissonolbmo buohtalasvuhtii stelledeamis, lea maiddái oidnosis Hesse maŋŋeleappo oaivegirjjiin, dego Demianis ja Ádjoeanagumppes.

Dan maŋŋil go Hesse oahpásmuvai Carl Gustaf Junga árkatiipaohppii, dát oahppa váikkuhii su girjjiide mearkkalaččat. Vuosttas geardde dat oidno Demian –románas. Demianis leat vel oidnosis gárggiideapmiromána sárgosat, muhto seamma láhkai go Ádjoeanagumppes dáhpáhusat ásaiduvvet milloseappot siskkáldas sielumáilbmái go olgguldas duođalašvuhtii. Oktan oaivetemán šattai nuorra olbmo geaidnu iežas dovdamuššii Hesse girjjiin. Danin lohkameahttun máŋga nuora válljejedje ja ain válljejit Hesse sin favorihtta girječállin.

Muhtin dehálaš iešvuohta dahje dahkki Hesse girjjiin lea olbmo vuoiŋŋalašvuohta, earenoamážit Siddhartha –románas. Dan dáhpáhusat giessasit indialaš viisodagaide, taolažžii ja kristtalaš mystihkkii. Oaivejurdda, man mielde geaidnu viisodahkii vuolgá olbmos iežas, lea goittotge mihtilmas oarjeriikkaid vuolggasadji, mii ii vástit makkárašge ásialaš oahppama.

Buot Hesse girjjiin leat eallingearddálaš sárgosat ja earenoamáš čielgasit dat bohtet ovdan Ádjoeanagumppes, maid sáhteža atnit juobe ovdamearkkalaš románan eallinkriissas. Dát sárgosat báhce gurrii easka Hesse maŋŋidis buvttadeamis. Románain Mátki iđida eatnamii ja Lássabearalspeallu Hesse ovdanbuktá temá, maid son gieđahalai juo Peter Camenzind –girjjis: vita activa ja vita contemplativa gaskasaš opposišuvdnavuođa. Lássabearalspealus Hesse dagai humanisttalašvuođa ja vuoiŋŋa utopia gaskkas soahteáiggi dahkan rámaid, mat ledje 1900-logu issorasamusat. Seammás son čálii fas klassihkalaš gárggiideapmiromána. Dát opposišuvnnalaš elemeanttat leat girjjis gaskavuođa dássedeattus. William Morris –tiipasaš, idealisttalaš ja gaskaáigásaš girji lei hui bivnnut soađi gaikkodan Duiskkas jagi 1945.

Hermann Hesse girjjiid girjjálaš kvalitehta ja mearkkašupmi lei juo su eallima áigge šiitemeahttun. Dattetge girjjiin nággejuvvo dálá áiggis dego ovdalge. Girječálliguoimmit Thomas Mann ja Hugo Ball árvvus aniiga su ollu, go fas Kurt Tucholsky meroštalai Hesse čehppodaga esseačállin sakka alibut go su poesiija. Alfred Döblin humai Hesse oktavuođas juobe “dolkadahtti limonádas.” Hesse árra barggut ožžo eanemus miehtemielalaš vuostáiváldima goittotge dan áigge girjjálašvuođa kritihkkariid gaskkas.

Máilmmisođiid áigge Duiskkas Hesse bivnnutvuođa heajudedje ollu su vuostá ordnejuvvon preassakampánjat, mat ledje čuovvumuššan su pasifisttalaš ja eahpenationalisttalaš cealkámušain. Jagis 1937 Hesse girjjit ožžo vuovdimassii šat lágaheamit. Danin stuorra oassi nuorat buolvvas gávnnai Hesse easka jagi 1945 maŋŋá.

Logijagi Hesse Nobel bálkkašumi maŋŋá girječálli Karlheinz Deschner čálii jagi 1957 riiddu hástaleaddji artihkkalis Kitsch, Konvention, und Kunst (“Kitša, dáhpi ja dáidda) čuovvovaččat: “Dat ahte Hesse lea almmustahttán nu jierpmeheamit ollu fuones divttaid, čájeha šállošahtti stivrra váni, dat lea vuigestaga girjjálaš barbariija.” Son ii gaskavuođa atnán motge positiivvaleappo Hesse prosage maiddái. Čuovvovaš jagiin oassi girjjálašvuođa kritihkkariin ledje fárus Deschenera duomus ja máŋgasat kategoriserejedje Hesse girjjiid plagierejeaddji kitšan.

Gaskavuođa atnimis Hessii dáhpáhuvvá jotkkolaš heailuma. Go Hesse bivnnutvuohta lei vudjon bodnái 1960-logus Duiskkas, šattai USA:s nuoraid gaskkas stuorra ja vilddáskan Hesse-lihkadus, mii leavai maiddái Duiskii. Ádjoeanagumppes šattai riikkaidgaskasaš bestseller (muhtin rock-joavku oaččui nama romána mielde), ja Hesses šattai okta dain eanemus lohkkon ja jorgaluvvon duiskagielat girječálliin. Su girjjit leat vuvdojuvvon olles máilmmis badjel 100 miljovnna stuhka.

Hesse muitun leat namuhuvvon guokte girjjálašvuođa bálkkašumi: Calwa Hermann Hesse –bálkkašupmi ja Karlsruhe Hermann Hesse –girjjálašvuođabálkkašupmi.

, gii oaččui Nobela girjjálašvuođa bálkkašumi

Mannschaftskader der Extraliga (Tschechien, Schach) 2006/07

Die Liste der Mannschaftskader der Extraliga (Tschechien, Schach) 2006/07 enthält alle Spieler, die in der tschechischen Extraliga im Schach 2006/07 mindestens einmal eingesetzt wurden mit ihren Einzelergebnissen.

Insgesamt setzten die 12 Vereine 147 Spieler ein, von denen 47 keinen Wettkampf verpassten. Der 1. Novoborský ŠK kam mit 9 eingesetzten Spielern aus, während bei TJ Zikuda Turnov die meisten Spieler mindestens eine Partie spielten, nämlich 15.

Erfolgreichster Spieler der Saison war Martin Petr (RC Sport Pardubice) mit 9,5 Punkten aus 11 Partien. 8,5 Punkte aus 11 Partien erreichte Stanislav Jasný (BŠŠ Frýdek-Místek), je 8 Punkte erzielten Viktor Láznička, Jiří Štoček (beide RC Sport Pardubice), Tomáš Oral (TJ TŽ Třinec) und Lukáš Klíma (1. Novoborský ŠK), wobei Láznička 10 Partien spielte, die übrigen genannten je 11. Mit Tomáš Dvořák (BŠŠ Frýdek-Místek), Jan Havlík (ŠK Mahrla Prag) und Tomáš Zelený (TJ Zikuda Turnov) erreichten drei Spieler mit je einem Einsatz 100 %.

Die nachstehenden Tabellen enthalten folgende Informationen:

1992/93 | 1993/94 | 1994/95 | 1995/96 | 1996/97 | 1997/98 | 1998/99 | 1999/2000 | 2000/01 | 2001/02 | 2002/03 | 2003/04 | 2004/05 | 2005/06 | 2006/07 | 2007/08 | 2008/09 | 2009/10 | 2010/11 | 2011/12 | 2012/13 | 2013/14 | 2014/15 | 2015/16 | 2016/17

Clique-sum

In graph theory, a branch of mathematics, a clique-sum is a way of combining two graphs by gluing them together at a clique, analogous to the connected sum operation in topology. If two graphs G and H each contain cliques of equal size, the clique-sum of G and H is formed from their disjoint union by identifying pairs of vertices in these two cliques to form a single shared clique, and then possibly deleting some of the clique edges. A k-clique-sum is a clique-sum in which both cliques have at most k vertices. One may also form clique-sums and k-clique-sums of more than two graphs, by repeated application of the two-graph clique-sum operation.

Different sources disagree on which edges should be removed as part of a clique-sum operation. In some contexts, such as the decomposition of chordal graphs or strangulated graphs, no edges should be removed. In other contexts, such as the SPQR-tree decomposition of graphs into their 3-vertex-connected components, all edges should be removed. And in yet other contexts, such as the graph structure theorem for minor-closed families of simple graphs, it is natural to allow the set of removed edges to be specified as part of the operation.

Clique-sums have a close connection with treewidth: If two graphs have treewidth at most k, so does their k-clique-sum. Every tree is the 1-clique-sum of its edges. Every series-parallel graph, or more generally every graph with treewidth at most two, may be formed as a 2-clique-sum of triangles. The same type of result extends to larger values of k: every graph with treewidth at most k may be formed as a clique-sum of graphs with at most k + 1 vertices; this is necessarily a k-clique-sum.

There is also a close connection between clique-sums and graph connectivity: if a graph is not (k + 1)-vertex-connected (so that there exists a set of k vertices the removal of which disconnects the graph) then it may be represented as a k-clique-sum of smaller graphs. For instance, the SPQR tree of a biconnected graph is a representation of the graph as a 2-clique-sum of its triconnected components.

Clique-sums are important in graph structure theory, where they are used to characterize certain families of graphs as the graphs formed by clique-sums of simpler graphs. The first result of this type was a theorem of Wagner (1937), who proved that the graphs that do not have a five-vertex complete graph as a minor are the 3-clique-sums of planar graphs with the eight-vertex Wagner graph; this structure theorem can be used to show that the four color theorem is equivalent to the case k = 5 of the Hadwiger conjecture. The chordal graphs are exactly the graphs that can be formed by clique-sums of cliques without deleting any edges, and the strangulated graphs are the graphs that can be formed by clique-sums of cliques and maximal planar graphs without deleting edges. The graphs in which every induced cycle of length four or greater forms a minimal separator of the graph (its removal partitions the graph into two or more disconnected components, and no subset of the cycle has the same property) are exactly the clique-sums of cliques and maximal planar graphs, again without edge deletions. Johnson & McKee (1996) use the clique-sums of chordal graphs and series-parallel graphs to characterize the partial matrices having positive definite completions.

It is possible to derive a clique-sum decomposition for any graph family closed under graph minor operations: the graphs in every minor-closed family may be formed from clique-sums of graphs that are „nearly embedded“ on surfaces of bounded genus, meaning that the embedding is allowed to omit a small number of apexes (vertices that may be connected to an arbitrary subset of the other vertices) and vortices (graphs with low pathwidth that replace faces of the surface embedding). These characterizations have been used as an important tool in the construction of approximation algorithms and subexponential-time exact algorithms for NP-complete optimization problems on minor-closed graph families.

The theory of clique-sums may also be generalized from graphs to matroids. Notably, Seymour’s decomposition theorem characterizes the regular matroids (the matroids representable by totally unimodular matrices) as the 3-sums of graphic matroids (the matroids representing spanning trees in a graph), cographic matroids, and a certain 10-element matroid.

The Walt Disney Story

The Walt Disney Story était une attraction-exposition des parcs Magic Kingdom et Disneyland ouverte en 1973 et consacrée à l’œuvre et l’histoire de Walt Disney.

Les deux attractions sont situées à l’entrée du parc sur la droite et donnent sur Town Square. Dans un hall une exposition étaient présentée et dans un théâtre le même film était projeté. Après la projection le visiteur revenait à l’exposition mais les ressemblances s’arrêtaient là.

Après la mort de Walt Disney en 1966, de nombreux membres de la société Disney se sentirent investis par la nécessité de rendre hommage au défunt fondateur. À partir de juin 1969, plus de 200 employés des Walt Disney Productions se lancent dans la visualisation des interviews faites par Walt Disney et la sélection de séquences pour réaliser un film où il raconterait lui-même son histoire.

En mars 1973, un film de 23 min fut proposé. Il était conçu comme un livre de souvenir et devait être projeté au format 2,67:1 soit près de trop écrans de large pour un de haut.

Le film commençait par la naissance de Walt en 1901, puis son enfance à Marceline, sa participation à la Première Guerre mondiale en tant d’ambulancier puis les débuts dans l’animation à Kansas City. Ensuite il évoquait les débuts de Disney Brothers Studios à partir de 1923 avec les séries d’Alice Comedies ou de Mickey Mouse. Les films d’animation longs métrages étaient alors évoqués avec principalement Blanche-Neige, Fantasia, Alice au Pays des Merveilles et Cendrillon. La section suivante s’intéressait aux parcs à thèmes avec Disneyland et Walt Disney World Resort. Une partie du film réalisé pour promouvoir le domaine de Floride était réutilisé pour expliquer le projet d’EPCOT (encore non réalisé à l’ouverture de l’attraction). En conclusion, Walt expliquait son rôle d‘abeille (d’inspirateur-agitateur-catalyseur) au sein des Walt Disney Productions.

L’attraction de Disneyland a été installée en 1973 dans l‘Opera House de Main Street, USA. Elle comprenait dans le hall une importante collection de souvenirs sur Walt Disney

À partir de 1975 à la suite de protestations contre l’arrêt de Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln, l’attraction inclut la présentation d’Abraham Lincoln à la suite du film sur Walt. L’attraction devient donc très longue, près de 40 minutes et son nouveau nom l’est tout autant The Walt Disney Story featuring Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln.

En 1984, au profit d’une mise à jour de la partie comprenant Abraham Lincoln, le film sur Walt Disney est supprimé. L’année suivante, le contenu de l’exposition sur Disney change pour inclure une maquette du Capitole américain. L’attraction garde son nom et une grande partie de l’exposition souvenirs mais de nombreuses visiteurs considérèrent que l’âme des lieux n’est plus le même.

L’attraction conçue en même temps que celle de Disneyland a été installée dans un édifice construit spécialement pour elle. Ce bâtiment est situé sur la droite de la Gulf Hospitality House derrière une cour traversée par un chemin couvert. Il accueille deux théâtres de 300 places disposés l’un derrière l’autre avec un décroché.

Le visiteur longeait le premier théâtre par le sud par un large couloir dans lequel était présenté une exposition chronologique de souvenirs de Walt Disney. Des lettres, des photographies et des objets étaient disposés sur les murs ou dans des vitrines. Le célèbre, et unique, oscar à 8 personnages, offert à Walt pour Blanche-Neige et les Sept Nains fut présenté pendant toute la longévité de l’attraction.
Ensuite le visiteur atteignait le décroché reliant les deux salles. C’était une large salle permettant l’accès aux deux théâtres où était projeté le film. Sur le long mur convexe sud, 170 personnages de Disney étaient représentés sur une fresque. Plusieurs personnages y furent ajoutés après l’ouverture de l’attraction jusqu’en 1988, date à laquelle les ajouts accaparaient trop de temps aux animateurs. L’un d’entre eux aurait déclaré ne pas être un peintre ou tout au moins vouloir ne plus passer son temps dans „cette“ pièce.

À partir de 1987, l’ancien animateur à la retraite Harry Holt dessina des personnages à l’entrée de l’attraction.

Wormser Privileg (Juden)

Das Wormser Privileg war ein kaiserliches Privileg, das Heinrich IV. im Jahre 1090 den Wormser Juden zur Verhütung von weiteren Pogromen gewährte.

Das Wormser Privileg garantierte den Juden:

Heinrich IV. wollte mit diesen Rechten nicht etwa die persönliche Integrität der Juden schützen – etwa aus christlicher Nächstenliebe –, vielmehr beabsichtigte er die Kassen des Reichs vor Steuerausfällen infolge befürchteter Judenpogrome zu schützen. Außerdem sollte jüdisches Vermögen nicht geplündert werden, sondern den jeweiligen Territorialherren zufallen.

Mit dem Wormser Privileg schuf Heinrich IV. ein bahnbrechendes Rechtsstatut, eine Sammlung von Rechtsnormen, die im Positiven wie im Negativen für Jahrhunderte das Verhältnis zwischen Juden und Christen prägen sollte und den Rechtsstatus der Juden als kaiserliche Kammerknechte im Heiligen Römischen Reich begründete. Die Bedeutung des Wormser Privilegs zeigen auch die folgenden Transsumpte Friedrichs I. von 1157 und die Friedrichs II. von 1236 bis zum Transsumpt des Kölner Erzbischofs von 1360 im Rahmen der Wiederansiedlung von Juden in Köln nach den Pestverfolgungen.

Michael Marsham, 7. Earl of Romney

Michael Henry Marsham, 7. Earl of Romney (* 22. November 1910 in Rougham, Norfolk; † 5. Juni 2004 in Rougham, Norfolk) war ein britischer Adliger.

Er wurde als Sohn von Reginald Hastings Marsham (1865–1922) und Dora Hermione North († 1922) auf der Washpit Farm in Rougham in Norfolk geboren. Sein Großvater väterlicherseits war Charles Marsham, 4. Earl of Romney. Er besuchte die Sherborne School.

Er arbeitete als Gutsverwalter im Dienst von Shane O’Neill, 3. Baron O’Neill auf einem Anwesen in Randalstown im County Antrim in Nordirland. Während des Zweiten Weltkriegs diente er bei British Army in einer Einheit der Küstenartillerie und stieg bis zu seinem Ausscheiden 1945 in den Rang eines Majors auf. 1963 quittierte er seinen Dienst als Gutsverwalter in Randalstown und setze er sich auf der Washpit Farm in Rougham zur Ruhe.

Beim Tod seines Cousins Charles Marsham, 6. Earl of Romney am 6. September 1975 erbte der dessen Adelstitel Earl of Romney, nebst den nachgeordneten Titeln 7. Viscount Marsham, 9. Baron Romney sowie 13. Baronet. Mit den Titeln war damals auch ein erblicher Sitz im House of Lords verbunden, den er bis zum Inkrafttreten der Oberhausreform am 11. November 1999 innehatte.

Er war seit 1939 mit Frances Aileen Landale († 1995) verheiratet. Da die Ehe kinderlos blieb, erbte bei seinem Tod am 5. Juni 2004 sein Cousin Julian Charles Marsham seine Adelstitel.

Peter Lawrence (author)

Peter Lawrence is a book author and screenwriter who also uses his full name, Geale Peter Lawrence, to distinguish himself from various other writers of the same name. His book and screen credits are usually seen as ‚By Peter Lawrence.‘

His most recent published work includes the Frankenstein Vigilante Series of Steampunk Mysteries which take place in a dystopian world, a parallel existence to today’s society. Book One is titled ; ; and Book Three The Reckoning. The series is written with long-time collaborator Chris Trengove.

Also written with Trengove is a series of horror novellas: , , and . Trengove and Lawrence first collaborated on It’s Your Money In My Pocket, Dear, Not Mine In Yours; Engulfed In A Tide Of Filth (re-published as Up The Pictures); ; and the music business cult classic Full Moon.

It’s Your Money, Engulfed/Up The Pictures, and Striptease Emporium are part of an ongoing series, The London Chronicles.

Writing solo, Lawrence has published , a ‚fictionalized autobiography‘ about growing up in Northern Rhodesia/Zambia; and , a dramatic and meticulously researched and observed novel set in South and Southern Central Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Books for younger readers, and the adults who read to them, include The Princess Formerly Known As Snow White, Little Red (The Wolf’s Tale) and two books about ‚Shandy‘ and ‚Roly‘ – ‚

In addition to writing books, Lawrence works in film and television. He has been commissioned by many U.S., European and Asian studios and producers, including BLT; Disney; Cinemedia/Overseas Film Group; Constantin Film; Forum Media; Fox; Industry Entertainment/Sony; London Weekend Television; Magder/ITT; Miramax; Rankin-Bass/ABC; Rialto; Roxy; and TorStar. He has written more than thirty screenplays – among those produced: „The Burning“; „Terminal Choice“; „Globi & the Stolen Shadows.“

Other works, in and out of option and turnaround, include Blood Ranch, Flashchord, Blues For Jack, Again, Houdini and Doyle, Fishing For Crocodiles, and Ma Duncan.

Lawrence has extensive credits in animation and children’s entertainment, having been the story editor/show-runner on iconic TV series like ThunderCats; SilverHawks; Peter Pan and the Pirates and The Real Adventures of Jonny Quest.

Lawrence lives and works in California, Colombia and Europe.

Manitoba Provincial Road 280

Manitoba provincial highways

Provincial Road 280 (PR 280) is a road in the Canadian province of Manitoba. It runs from PR 391 northwest of Thompson to local streets in Gillam. The route is 291 kilometres (181 mi) long, which during its length, passes several large lakes and intersects with one provincial road, PR 290, just north of Gillam. The route is very scenic, passing through dense forests and rural lands. The route supplies three municipalities, Thompson, Split Lake, and Gillam. From its terminus north of Thompson, Manitoba to the town Gillam, PR 280 is classified as a Class A1 Provincial Route.

PR 280 was designated in 1987 as a connector from Thompson to Gillam with a spur to Sundance.

PR 280 begins at an intersection north of Thompson on the shores of Birch Tree Lake with PR 391. PR 280 runs northeast from PR 391 as a two-lane gravel road through the dense woods north of Thompson Airport. As the road bends to the northeast, it runs west of Mystery Lake, which is connected by a gravel road that runs to the shoreline. Continuing northeast, PR 280 leaves the Mystery Lake area and soon reaches a dirt road that connects to nearby Moak Lake.

After Moak Lake, PR 280 continues northeast past Wasakamew Lake and Orr Lake while paralleling the Burntwood River. After Putkawakan Lake, PR 280 turns eastward along the Burntwood River, which soon drains into Split Lake. The road turns northeast away from the river and runs into a junction with a winter road that connects to the settlement of Split Lake. Paralleling the north shore of eponymous lake, PR 280 runs to the northeast from Split Lake and starts wandering through the dense woods of northern Manitoba.

Approaching the western end of Stephens Lake, PR 280 turns east and soon to the southeast as it reaches the northern shore of the lake. Passing a local connector to the shore, the route reaches a junction with the southern terminus of PR 290, which connects to the abandoned settlement of Sundance. At this junction, PR 280 turns west, reaching the shores of the Nelson River. The route crosses over the Nelson River and reaches the settlement of Long Spruce.

After Long Spruce, PR 280 runs west along the southern shore of the Nelson River then turns south and southwest away from the river. The route winds west, then turns to the northwest, approaching the river and Stephens Lake. Paralleling railroad tracks, PR 280 passes an electrical substation as it enters the city of Gillam. Through the northeastern section of Gillam, the route crosses over the railroad tracks and turn north and west in short order. Running southwest, PR 280 reaches the access point to Gillam Airport and soon enters downtown Gillam.

Through downtown Gillam, PR 280 reaches a junction with Batnau Road, which marks the eastern terminus of the highway. Batnau Road connects to downtown Gillam.

Before PR 280 existed, the only ways to the northern terminus town of Gillam was via a nearby airport to the southeast of town and the railroad line that stretched from Thompson to northern parts of Manitoba. The railroad opened in 1929. PR 280 was designated by the Manitoba Ministry of Infrastructure and Transportation in 1987 as a designated gravel road from PR 391 northwest of Thompson to Gillam with an unnumbered spur to Sundance. PR 290 was designated on the spur in 1989.

On March 28, 2002, the government of Manitoba order out an CAD$84.8 million plan to work on its province’s roads. $940,000 was spent for gravel stabilization beginning at PR 391 and ending in Gillam. This work was also under the Community Main Access Gravel Road Stabilization Program. $700,000 of this $84 million went for additional gravel between 391 and PR 290. $600,000 went to road development near Wasakamew Lake, 52 kilometres (32 mi) north of PR 391.

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DAKS

Paul Dimond, (Deputy chairman)

DAKS is a British luxury fashion house, founded in 1894 by Simeon Simpson.

DAKS holds royal warrants granted from three members of the Royal Family, one of 15 firms (out of 820) to do so. Officially granted to DAKS’ Simpson Piccadilly store in 1956 was the royal warrant of HRH The Duke of Edinburgh, followed by that of HM The Queen in 1962 and HRH The Prince of Wales in 1982.

Worldwide, DAKS is exported to 30 countries and sold in over 2,000 specialty shops, major stores and concessions. The name is a combination of the initials of Alexander Simpson and an initial and final letter of his business associate Dudley Beck.

In 1894 Simeon Simpson, aged 16, rented a room on Middlesex Street, East London, with the intention of setting up a business in bespoke tailoring, focused on high standard craftsmanship. Several innovations of technology at the time were being introduced with machinery capable of making buttonholes and electric powered saws to cut many layers of fabric at once – Simpson saw the potential for such equipment for producing garments in higher quantities while still upholding quality tailoring techniques, aiming to improve ready-to-wear standards as no male or female professionals considered ready-to-wear for suitable attire at the time. Simpson’s methods proved successful in speeding up the process and he set up several factories within London, which soon required expansion in its early years through popularity of the label.

Alexander Simpson, his second son, joined the business aged 15 in 1917, and by 1929 had planned and opened a larger factory in Stoke Newington where production could be centralised, this again had to be enlarged a few years later.

With the continued growth of the company Alexander Simpson began to take more control of the business, and in 1935 DAKS gained further fame for the S Simpson brand as an innovation in the tailoring world of the first self-supporting trouser. He went about to invent a way to support his trousers that wouldn’t need braces as these interrupted his swing whilst playing golf and caused his shirt to become untucked. The DAKS trouser was invented – it had a channel within the waistband at the back wherein an elasticated strip was attached at the sides with tabs attached to one of two buttons for adjustment. On the inside of the waistband were sewn-on rubber pads that gripped the shirt and stopped it from becoming loose. This happened in a world where to buy a pair of trousers of high quality one would have to have a bespoke pair made by a tailor, and thus this new design allowed the ease of ready-to-wear trousers. Simpson was so sure of his new design that he had 100,000 pairs made before being introduced to the public at a high price of 30 shillings in a time when a whole bespoke suit would cost 50 shillings. The trousers were available in many colours and fabrics that weren’t generally associated with menswear. They became so popular that the trousers were incorporated into suits and soon after a DAKS womenswear line was released, using the patented waistband for skirting.

The inception of the DAKS name was aiming to be something short, snappy and eye catching and is an arrangement of initials from the two men involved in its development – ‘AS’ for Alexander Simpson and ‘DK’ for his business associate Dudley Beck (his surname’s last letter was used so as to make a better sounding name than using a B) hence why the name is capitalised. The advertising agent involved for the promotion of these new trousers, Sir William Crawford of WS Crawford Ltd thought up the idea to market them as ‘Dad’s Slacks’ as it had connotations of reliability and comfort whilst also sounding similar to the name DAKS.

At the turn of the 21st century when the company was acquired by Japanese group Sankyo Seiko Co. Limited in 1991, the S Simpson name was dropped and DAKS became the new brand name.

The ease-of-wear of the trousers and how they allowed movement, as intended from Simpson’s invention, led to DAKS being popular in sporting wear – kitting tennis, golf, motor racing, and football players, and even for the British Olympic team in 1960. The quality of S Simpson tailoring was such that the company was commissioned by the British Government at the time of the Second World War to produce military uniforms for Officers in the Army, Navy, Royal Airforce and Women’s Services even despite the semi-destruction of the Stoke Newington factory due to bomb damage and loss of electricity – with about seven million garments made for military services being produced.

After the war when DAKS clothes were announced to start selling to the public again queues of people would form down Piccadilly, to which Simpson tailors would measure them in line and present suitable pairs of trousers to them when they got into the Simpsons of Piccadilly store.

Simeon Simpson’s son Alexander Simpson, who was then owner of the company, decided he wanted to find a ‘window’ for Simpson clothes in the heart of London. He founded Simpsons of Piccadilly when the Geological Museum had closed and the site to be auctioned. The new building was designed by architect Joseph Emberton as a new and revolutionary retail establishment, the shop front windows exhibited the first curved glass display in Great Britain and the largest in the world at the time, these were designed so that no reflection would be cast to obscure the displays inside. The outstanding feature of the shop’s interior was the travertine staircase that ran up through the centre of the store lit by a continuous window up the height of the building. The current lighting structure suspended through the staircase centre is the original from the 1930s as the building has since become a listed building.

The store opened in April 1936 by Sir Malcolm Campbell, the world famous motor-racing driver. and was famed for its visual merchandising and window displays by László Moholy-Nagy, a former director from the Bauhaus school. Opening the store was a highlight of Alexander Simpson’s vision, he died the following year of leukaemia aged just 34.

Simpsons continued to trade in the Simpsons Piccadilly building for several decades more, helping officers and civilians during World War II, and in later years branched out to sell other clothing by designer labels such as Armani and Christian Dior Since 1999 Simpsons stopped trading at the Piccadilly store and moved the renamed DAKS to a new flagship store and London offices to Old Bond Street, whilst moving to another new store on Jermyn Street which was recently refurbished in 2012 to focus on selling classic menswear. The original store was sold to bookseller Waterstone’s and now serves as their flagship store.

To accompany the opening of the new flagship store on Old Bond Street in 2000 DAKS collaborated with Philip Treacy to commission a hat featuring the Double D logo, they also collaborated with Jimmy Choo to create a shoe collection featuring the house check. In 2005, Sankyo-Seiko (for ladies) and Kashiyama (for men’s) was the DAKS ready-to-wear license holder in Japan with retail value of €190 million.Bruce Montgomery designed the Menswear since 1996 and showed the Menswear Luxury range on the Milan catwalk for five seasons until 2009. In 2007, British designer Giles Deacon was appointed Creative Director for the brand, showing for three womenswear seasons at London Fashion Week. Since then, Filippo Scuffi joined DAKS as Creative Director in 2008 and is currently in charge of showing catwalk presentations at Milan Men’s Fashion Week and London Fashion Week. For the Spring Summer 2013 catwalk collection, DAKS collaborated with renowned fashion illustrator David Downton, a style in keeping with its advertising history. The label aims to reinvigorate the values of its heritage while providing a modern aesthetic.

Simpsons’ and DAKS’ advertising was quite profound, featured in colour and in magazines such as Punch and throughout the store, characteristic and witty they included illustrations by Max Hoff who was persuaded by Alexander Simpson and Sir William Crawford to move to Britain from Austria during the Second World War. He stayed with the company from 1936 to coincide with the Simpsons of Piccadilly launch, until the late 1960s. Thereafter Eric Stemp came to DAKS from Vogue replacing Hoff as official advertising illustrator for Simpsons of Piccadilly. All advertising, some carpeting, and the Simpsons and DAKS logos were designed by Ashley Havinden, who worked with William Crawford at his company WS Crawford Ltd, for which Havinden later became the art director. DAKS have also collaborated with Vogue fashion photographers Norman Parkinson in the 1960s and Horst P. Horst in the 1970s for advertising campaigns.

HRH The Duke of Edinburgh visited the company’s Larkhall factory in Scotland in recognition of its role in exporting goods worldwide.

(Larkhall was built in 1948 to Simpson’s specifications and was opened by Harold Wilson who later became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. The factory since closed in the early 2000s). DAKS was granted the Royal Warrant of Appointment by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh in 1956. Her Majesty The Queen and HRH The Prince of Wales granted the company with Royal Warrants in 1962 and 1982 respectively.

The company developed a House Check in 1976 by Johnny Mengers, the Group Managing Director of the time and last family chairman. Representing the most luxurious fabrics and richest colours of camel and vicuna, and the check has since become iconic for the brand.

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